What is a cholera?
Today in Yemen, the epidemic of cholera rages, the world health system headed by the WHO pays a lot of attention to this problem. This fact raises the question of what cholera is, why it is real in the XXI century and whether it is dangerous for the people of Ukraine?
Cholera: What is this illness, what are its symptoms and consequences?
Cholera is an acute, especially dangerous, infectious disease. In a short period of time, it can infect a significant number of people, causing the whole epidemic, with mortality from it reaching 50% in the absence of adequate treatment. According to WHO statistics, every year in the world 1.3 to 4 million cases of infection with cholera are recorded, with dying from 21 to 143 thousand people.
Pathogenic disease – cholera vibrio, which is part of the flora of many reservoirs. Best of all, it multiplies at a temperature of 30-40 ° C, which is why the epidemic of cholera occurs in India, Asia and Africa, where it is hot. The cholera stick dies during boiling water, as well as under the prolonged influence of direct sunlight. On the surface of vegetables and fruits, it can live up to 5 days. The method of infecting a disease is fecal-oral, from one sick person to another, due to the secretion of the pathogen from faeces and vomit masses. Also, a person can get infected by drinking water with cholera vibrio.
Cholera is not only characteristic of what is a cholera? Is it dangerous for Ukraine? hot countries, but also for those who do not adhere to the rules of elementary hygiene, the process of water supply and water treatment is badly established. For example, in Yemen, for several years now, there has been a civil war, during which virtually all water pipelines were destroyed.
The incubation period of the cholera lasts 2-3 days, after which there are the following symptoms of the disease:
very strong diarrhea (up to 10 times a day or more);
general intoxication of the body, which manifests itself in extremely intense vomiting.
Man loses huge amounts of fluid – up to 20 liters, resulting in thickening of the blood and dehydration of the body. The condition of the patient very quickly deteriorates, because of the loss of fluid may appear muscle cramps.
The facial features of the patient are exacerbated, the eyes fall, the lips are blue, the skin becomes cold, wrinkles on the hands and feet. If a person is not treated, she will die in the first day with a 50 percent probability.
Treatment and prevention of cholera
Treatment of cholera is performed exclusively under inpatient settings. The basis of treatment – replacement of the needs of the fluid and the necessary trace elements in the body, support water-electrolyte and acid-base balance. Also, people are treated with antibiotics, cholera vibration is sensitive to conventional tetracycline. If timely start therapy, the probability of mortality is only 1%.
Repeated infection with cholera is quite realistic, the disease transmitted does not provide lasting immunity. Therefore, it is impossible to get vaccinated. Prophylactic remedies for cholera are as follows:
Wash your hands before eating and cooking.
Wash your hands after a toilet.
Drink only boiled water.
Wash vegetables and fruits thoroughly before use. In regions prone to the spread of cholera, you should also treat them with boiling water.
Swim only in permitted places.
Do not buy food in questionable places.
Do not eat in untested catering establishments.
So, can cholera be dangerous to Ukraine? For our geographical latitudes this disease is not characteristic, but the probability of infection always exists, especially considering the peculiarities of life in the modern world with the possibility of visiting troubled regions with a tourist or work purpose. Therefore, caution will not hurt, especially against the backdrop of an epidemic in the region of the Arabian Peninsula.